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Artificial Intelligence - AI Basics

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Lession - #788 History of AI


A brief History or Background of Artificial Intelligence




Artificial Intelligence is neither a new terminology and nor a new technology for researchers. This technology is much older & has myths, stories with significant history. Following are some of important milestones in the evolution of AI generation till now,Artificial Intelligence invented or created on 1956.

Artificial Intelligence (1943-1952>


  • 1943-The very first work on AI done by Warren McCulloch and Walter pits in 1943, proposed the model of artificial neurons.

  • 1950- Alan Turing English mathematician and pioneered Machine learning, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" published. He developed a test called a Turing test, that can check the machine's ability to behave & exhibit same as human intelligence.

    Birth of Artificial Intelligence (1952-1956>


  • 1956- The Dartmouth Conference was held in 1956, organized by Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy and two senior scientists: Claude Shannon and Nathan Rochester of IBM. The word "Artificial Intelligence" first coined by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. For the first time & AI was accepted as an academic field for the first time.

    Symbolic AI (1956-1974>

  • 1966: The researchers emphasised creating algorithms which can solve mathematical problems. Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot in 1966, named ELIZA.

  • 1972: The first human made Aritificial intelligent robot was once built in Japan which used to be named as WABOT-1.

    The first AI winter (1974-1980>


    The period between years 1974 to 1980 was the first AI winter duration. AI winter refers to the time duration where computer scientist dealt with a extreme scarcity of funding from authorities for AI researches, Critics from throughout campus, Limited computer powers. There used to be no longer ample memory or processing speed to accomplish some thing useful. During AI winters, popularity of artificial intelligence was once decreased.

    Boom of AI (1980-1987>


  • 1980: After AI winter duration, AI returned with "Expert System" which integrate machine, software, and exclusive data to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and recommendation to the users.Expert systems had been programmed that had the capability of decision-making same as human proficiency.

    The second AI winter (1987-1993>


    The period between the years 1987 to 1993 was the second AI Winter duration. Again Investors and government stopped in funding for AI research as due to excessive cost however no longer efficient result. The expert system such as XCON was once very cost effective.

    The evolution of intelligent agents (1993-2011>


    1997: In the year 1997, IBM Deep Blue became the first computer to beat a world chess champion Gary Kasparov.

  • 2002: for the first time, AI entered the household in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner in the form of iRobot.

  • 2006: AI entered the Business world by the year 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix, Amazon also started using AI.

    Deep learning, machine learning, big data and artificial intelligence (2011-present>


  • 2011: In the year 2011, IBM's Watson won a quiz show, called Jeopardy, where it resolved the complicated questions as well as riddles. Watson proved that it could recognize natural language and can resolve complex questions quickly.

  • 2012: Google has launched an Android app feature "Google now", which was once capable to furnish information to the user as a prediction.

  • 2014: In the year 2014, Chatbot "Eugene Goostman" gained a competition in the notorious "Turing test."

  • 2018: The "Project Debater" from IBM debated on complicated subjects with two grasp debaters and additionally performed extraordinarily well.

    Google has demonstrated an AI application "Duplex" which was once a virtual assistant. Now AI has developed to a brilliant level.

    The concept of Deep learning, big data, machine learning and data science are now trending like a boom. Now a days organizations like Google, Facebook, IBM, and Amazon are working with AI and developing outstanding devices. The Artificial Intelligence future of inspiring and very bright, which will come with high intelligence & smartness same as humans or may be with AI machines could perform even better than humans.

    Artificial Intelligence Stocks are :
  • Nvidia Corp. (NVDA>
    Alphabet Inc. (GOOG, GOOGL>
  • Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN>
  • Microsoft Corp. (MSFT>
  • International Business Machines Corp. (IBM>
  • Meta Platforms Inc. (FB>